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Paper Production

Paper production

A paper factory is basically divided into three plant sections:

  • Raw materials processing
  • Paper machine
  • Finishing equipment


Raw materials processing:

In raw materials preparation, the raw materials in the form of dry waste paper bales are broken down in a pulper with plenty of water into its individual fibres. The resulting pulp is fed through a large sequence of units to clean out contaminants (e.g. plastics). Before going to the paper machine, additives (such as, starch, colour dyes or fillers) that are necessary to achieve the required paper properties are added and the material is diluted to a specific ratio of material to water.


Paper machine: 

Here the pulp is processed into an endless web paper. The paper machine consists of a single machine with several connected sections.

  • Sieve section
  • Press section
  • Dryer section
  • Reeling


Mesh screening:

The diluted paper pulp is distributed through several nozzles over the entire working width of a rotating screen. The water is extracted from the paper pulp due to gravity or centrifugal forces, such that the individual fibres are deposited on the screen and form a fibre fleece. At the end of this process, the paper web still contains approximately 80% water.

This process is carried out both for the backing and on the top screen for the top liner layer. In order to produce multi-layer paper webs, the two layers are "squeezed” (pressed) together.


Press section:

The water that can no longer be dewatered in the mesh section is squeezed out in the press section by mechanical pressure. For this purpose, the web is passed between rollers by means of several felt webs and subjected to a high compressive pressure. At the end of this process, the paper web still contains approximately 52% water.


Dryer section:

The remaining water is evaporated from the paper web by the input of thermal energy. The paper web is guided over steam-heated drying cylinders. In order to achieve specific target properties levels, a unit is installed in the dryer section for applying additives. A calender is installed at the end of the dryer section, which ensures a smooth and even surface.

At the end of the paper machine, the paper web is reeled onto a steel roll (drum).


Finishing equipment:

Before delivery, the paper must be cut to the desired length and width in the slitting machine and reeled onto smaller rolls. Finally, the finished rolls are packaged and labelled up for specific customers.

Images from the production process